"What really matters are the countless small deeds of unknown people who lay the basis for the events of human history. These are the people who have made change in the past; they are responsible for making change in the future, too."                                                Historian Howard Zinn

@ COPYRIGHT 2016. THALAMUS. All rights are reserved.

 PRESENTATION

 

A Project to build a 200,000 tpa facility to process household waste into merchandisable products and energy materials

 

WASTE PROCESSING AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO INCINERATION

 

1. Background information:

The present Concept is the result of co-operation of commercial, industrial and project-technological firms and organizations aimed at creating a process to convert waste into materials and products instead of waste liquidation as is done at conventional plants.

 

1.1. Concept:

The foundation of the facility is represented by the following concepts of a waste processing facility:

  • forms part of urban utility infrastructure enabling complete processing and, in particular cases, liquidation of arising and accumulated waste;

  • ensures environmental safety of a residential neighbourhood

  • represents a source of materials and products:

- power (hot water, stream, electric power),

- energy materials (motor fuels, fuel gases) and

- additional materials (minerals, metals etc.).

  • used as a refuse-free production facility (zero waste);

 

1.2. Driving factors:

  • Presence of continuously replenished source of raw material – municipal waste;

  • Multicomponent composition of the raw material enabling to produce chemical substances and compounds for industrial use;

  • Lower cost of materials recovered from waste (30% to 50% lower as compared to materials from natural resources);

  • Presence of technological equipment capable of producing materials and products  of predetermined quality which has been proven in other industries and representing the most advanced achievements of Russian science and technology.

 

2. Commercial basis:

 

2.1.General idea:

The commercial basis of the waste processing facility is as follows:

  • Production of materials and energy products conforming to quality requirements at a competitive cost;

  • Income generation for the project participants and originators.

 

2.2. Directive proposals:

  • The facility must produce final merchandisable materials and products from household waste and must be independent from other raw materials inputs;

  • The facility must incorporate the full production cycle starting from feed preparation to final materials production;

  • Every chemical element within waste must contribute and form part of the final products, except radioactive elements and chemical weapons;

  • All processes employed must be intensified and exceed by an order of magnitude the currently applied  conventional processes;

  • Economic payback period of the project must not exceed 6 years from the date of commissioning.

 

3. Production operation approach:

 

3.1. Operational approach:

  • The facility must accept and process waste of various phase states: solid, liquid, gaseous or in intermediate state

  • The facility must process waste of a wide morphological composition:

       - multicomponent, such as household waste;

       - homogeneous, such as peat, coal, gas, shales, automobile tires etc.

  • Production equipment must enable prompt switching between the production of various products depending on maximum and minimum intake of waste;

  • Production resource must enable a non-interruptive 24/365 waste processing.

 

3.2. Production decisions:

  • The primary production function of the facility is fuel manufacturing in the form of easily merchandisable products such as energy materials (motor fuels and gases) on the basis of the bulk part of waste composition which is represented by organics.

  • Due to the multicomponent nature of the waste the facility represents a diversified production structure incorporating:

- organic waste fraction derived products;

- mineral waste fraction derived products;

- metals waste fraction derived products.

 

3.3. Production workshops of the facility:

The facility is comprised of the following primary workshops:

  • Waste feed, control and preparation workshop;

  • Waste deactivation and synthesis gas production workshop;

  • Fuel motor synthesis workshop;

  • Construction materials workshop;

  • Metallic products workshop;

  • Heat and electrical power workshop.

 

 

4. Commercial products:

4.1. Economics of the facility:

To ensure profit maximization the project participants are interested in maximizing the added value of the products, therefore:

  • The manufactured environmentally compatible materials and products on the basis of the bulk mass of the waste must be processed up to the maximum possible final material or product;

  • Additional chemical elements and compounds must be used in the production of the materials to the maximum;

 

4.2. On the basis of waste, received of the municipality the facility must manufacture environmentally safe, commercially viable final materials and products:

  • Energy materials motor fuels (diesel fuels, petrol, gases etc.);

  • Building products (bricks, blocks etc.);

  • Pure metals and compounds (iron, copper, aluminum etc.);

  • Power (heat and electric).

 

5. Technological process:

5.1. The essence of the high-level waste processing:

  • The waste feed is multicomponent, i.e. it consists of multiply chemical elements and compounds;

  • The technological process must initially separate the feed into pure elements and then synthesize the determined compounds.

 

5.2. Technological processes:

The core of the technological chain is constituted by the following technological processes:-

  • Feedstock waste control for composition, mass, toxicity, radioactivity, presence of separate chemical elements and compounds thereof;

  • Feedstock softening and crushing to predetermined sizes and fractions;

  • Water content reduction to predetermined level;

  • Waste feedstock separation to components, such as organic, mineral and metallic fractions;

  • Waste feedstock deactivation and detoxication to levels set by heath regulations;

  • Syngas derivation from the organic waste component;

  • Production of predetermined fuels from syngas (CO + 2H);

  • Mechanical activation of selected mineral elements and hyper pressure moulding of building elements;

  • Deoxidization of ferrous and non-ferrous metals from metallic waste component, affinage and metal items production;

  • Cleaning of water, extracted from waste, to conform to levels set by health regulations;

  • Electrical power generation using the derived fuels: steam, syngas, motor fuels.

 

 

5.3. Key processes:

  • Crushed solid material to be treated is fed to the pool (salt reactor) via a pneumatic system;

  • Liquid wastes are pumped after moisture reduction;

  • Deactivation and oxidization reaction is conducted at 700-950ºC in a molten salt pool, usually sodium carbonate or eutectic of alkali metal carbonates (sodium carbonate is preferred option);

  • Efficient heat transfer to organic compounds by eutectic salts and alkali mixture heat medium;

  • Disperser and catalyst effect is fulfilled;

  • Simultaneous heating, drying and thermal impact destruction of wastes;

  • Dynamic activation of physical and chemical processes provoking organics molecular chain cleavage within reactor of a specific gas dynamic design;

  • Presence a displacing disposal system of inorganic residues from the reactor enables to dispose of it without molten discharge;

  • Any radionuclides, metals or other inorganic components remain in the molten salt and can be easily extracted for further disposal;

  • Low-melting waste components as a result of chemical reactions integrate the molten containing no toxins.

 

5.4. Distinctive features:

 

Technological characteristics of the proposed facility as compared to conventional waste disposal solutions:-

  • Waste feedstock is fed directly onto processing (waste separators) without stockpiling in the territory as is conventionally the case;

  • Rotating separators are uniquely equipped with bactericidal lamps as well as with aspiration and fire suppression systems, which enable to quickly and safely aseptisize the waste feedstock and prevent any inflammation;

  • Waste drying is effected by electro-kinetic method of water extraction together with heavy metal salts instead of vaporisation as is conventionally the case, thus, the toxicity of the waste is reduced by more than 50%;

  • Waste deactivation and syngas production is carried out via molten salt oxidation process instead of high-temperature (up to plasma) processing as is conventionally the case.  Positive effect: absence of harmful emissions such as dioxins or furans;

  • One-stage deoxidation of target metals from waste with further affinage in salt pools with vectored crystallisation. No similar processes are performed elsewhere;

  • Mineral component cleaned of heavy metals and toxic compounds, is ground, mechanically activated and high pressure moulded to a construction block of predetermined form. No similar processes are performed elsewhere;

  • Motor fuels are produced from environmentally-compatible syngas with the usage of standard technologies, employed in gas chemical plants. No similar processes are performed elsewhere;

  • Electricity generation is carried out by standard electricity equipment, at that, outgoing gases and heat are fully utilized. No similar processes are performed elsewhere;

  • Water extracted from waste is cleaned without chemical substances, making the facility an environmentally-benign enterprise;

  • Proposed plant restores waste to fresh raw materials, comparable to natural raw materials and employs a deep up to 97% processing of waste to merchandisable products, which makes the facility to stand out the similar technologies.

 

6. Facility applicability:

 

The solution can be applied to the entire waste stream to include solid and liquid household, industrial and commercial waste; to name specifically:-

  • solid household and municipal waste;

  • used automobile tires;

  • peat and coal preparation refuse;

  • biomass waste (agricultural, wood etc.);

  • oil product wastes (used oils, oil slimes etc.);

  • other wastes, rejects and tailing that cannot be utilized by other methods.

 

 

 

7. Facility as part of the housing and utilities infrastructure:

7.1. Waste processing facility is a dynamic system, regulated by production and commercial processes on the basis of two critical factors:

  • Waste received through the day must be processed;

  • Final materials and products must be externalized, otherwise, it may lead to overstocking;

 

7.2. Facility capacity on the basis of the following capabilities:

  • Capable of prompt processing (within 24 hours) of waste arising in the area for the day;

  • Capable to be employed as a stand-by source of electricity and heat;

  • Capable to reduce waste acceptance tariffs and landfill maintenance costs;

  • Capable to deliver additional materials and products to meet the needs of municipal services and business.

 

8. Environmental assessment:

  • Very high level of destruction ( over 99,9999%) of toxic materials such as dioxins, furans etc. ensure maximum feasible environmental emission standards;

  • The bulkiest refuse is water cleaned to the standards of fishing or technical use;

  • Refuses, solid and liquid wastes of the production process are commercial sub-products and are used in recycling.

 

 

9. Peers:

9.1. Foreign manufacturers:

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA (NASA and US MOD)

 

10. Primary commercial product:

Basic motor fuel fractions: diesel fuels, petrol

 

11. Primary production cycle:

Feed preparation for decarbonizing

 

12. Key production process:

Production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen

 

13. Key chemical reactions:

 

13.1. Carbon combustion

2С + О2 -> 2CO

13.2. CO2 deoxidization

CO2 + C <--> 2CO

13.3. CO Steam conversion

H2O + CO <--> CO2 + H2

13.4. Basic reaction medium:

Eutectic of alkali metal carbonates, in particular, sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, K2CO3, СаСО3, Li2CO3 etc.)

 

14. Key production process:

Motor fuels production with the use of catalysts enabling one- or two-stage production of synthesis motor fuels from synthesis gases.

 

  • Fischer Tropsch process

  • BIMT Technology

  • LINAX Technology

  • REOTEK Technology

  • SINTOP Technology

  • CEOSIN Technology

 

15. Equipment peers:

  • Liquid phase molten salt reactors for oxidation-deoxidation reaction of detoxication and decarbonation of compounds with the production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (synthesis gas);

  • Flameless oxidation in molten salts